Key Issues of Non-Fungible Token (NFT): How Transfer of Copyright Should Adapt?


  • Alif Muhammad Gultom University College Cork
  • Fitri Astari Asril Technische Universität Dresden



Copyright transfer, Intellectual Property Rights, NFTs


Non-fungible tokens, also known as NFTs, are a special kind of digital record of ownership that is utilized in a certain manner to guarantee validity and uniqueness of intangible goods. Due to its features, NFTs become interesting among art creators and even asset collector. Transactions on NFT create incredible values, which raises a number of legal issues, particularly in the realm of intellectual property rights related to copyright. This research aims to explains the connection between the existence of NFT and current copyright law in Indonesia focusing on the ownership and transfer of rights from the purchasing of NFTs. The author will try to compare on other jurisdictions (Ireland & Germany) concerning the copyright legal framework. Furthermore, the practice by licensing method in current NFTs marketplace will also be demonstrate through this paper. The research methodology employed is a normative juridical approach with an analytical and descriptive research design. Based on the research conducted, there is still a legal gap in Indonesian copyright law, particularly in the realm of NFTs and the idea of droit de suite, which has existed in intellectual property right concept globally. Finally, this paper will present several recommendations for the government and other relevant stakeholders upon NFTs transactions.


Download data is not yet available.


Budi Agus Riswandi, 2017, Pembatasan dan Pengecualian Hak Cipta di Era Digital, Bandung, Citra Aditya Bakti

Janusz Barta and Ryzsard Markiewics, 2021, International Copyright Law and Practice, International Copyright Law and Practice: Vol. 2, Lexis Nexis

Michael Gruenberger and Adolf Dietz, 2021, International Copyright Law and Practice: Vol. 2, USA: LexisNexis - Matthew Bender Elite Products

Paul Goldstein and Bernt Hugenhotzl, 2010, International Copyright, Second Edition, Oxford: Oxford Community Press

Paul Goldstein and Bernt Hugenhotzl, 2010, International Copyright, Second Edition, Oxford: Oxford Community Press

Wiliam S Strong, 2014, The Copyright Book: A practical Guide: sixth edition, USA: the MIT Press

Wolters Kluwer Editorial Staff, 2017, Introduction to Intellectual Property: Theory and Practice, Second Edition, WIPO, Kluwer Law International

Ahmad, Xiaodi, and Jayaraman, “Understanding Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs): Overview, Opportunities, and Challenges”, The 49th Annual Northeast Business & Economics Association Conference, New Hampshire, 2022

Alexander Savelyev, “Contract Law 2.0: Smart’ Contracts as The Beginning of the End of Classic Contract law”, Information & Communications Technology Law, Vol. 26, Issue 2, 2017

Budi Agus Riswandi, “Legalization of Artists’ Resale Right (Droit De Suite) As the Protection System and Incentive Indonesia Painting”, Research World Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, Vol.8, No.1, January 2017

Caglayan Pinar & Zehra, “NFTs and Copyright: Challenges and Opportunities” Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice, Vol. 16, Issue 10, June 2021

Dewi Sulistianingsih and Apriliana Khomsa Kinanti, Hak Karya Cipta Non-Fungible Token (NFT) Dalam Sudut Pandang Hukum Hak Kekayaan Intelektual, Krtha Bhayangkara, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2022

Dio Bintang Gidete,, “ Legal Protection for Copyright Infringement on Artworks used as Non-Fungible Token (NFT) Works in the Digital Economy Era“, Jurnal Fundamental Justice, Vol 3, No. 1, March 2022

Éder Pereira et al, “Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) and Cryptocurrencies: Efficiency and Comovements”, Fintech, Vol.1, October 2022.

Ifeanyi E. Okonkwo, “NFT, copyright and intellectual property commercialization”, International Journal of Law and Information Technology, Vol. 29, Issue 4, 2021

Lennart Ante, “The Non-Fungible Token (NFT) Market and its Relationship with Bitcoin and Ethereum”, BRL Working Paper Series, No. 20, 2021

Manurung, P and Evelyn Angelita. "Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Hak Cipta Atas Karya Cipta Digital di Indonesia." Premise Law Journal 1, No. 2, 2013

Marius Schneider and Nora Ho Tu Nam, “Chinese Court Rules on NFT Transactions and Responsibility of Trading Platforms”, Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice, Vol. 17, No. 8, 2022

Mudassar & Sikha, “Introduction to NFTs: The Future of Digital Collectibles”, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (IJACSA), Vol. 12 Issue 10, 2021

Ni Dewi & Ida Sukihana, “Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Karya Seni Dalam Bentuk Non-Fungible Token (NFT)”, vo.11, No.4, July, 2022

Ranti,, “Intellectual Property Development & Komersialisasi Non-Fungible Token (NFT): Peluang, Tantangan Dan Problematika Hukum Dalam Praktik”, ACTA DIURNAL Jurnal Ilmu Hukum Kenotariatan, Vol.5, No. 2, June 2022

Retno,, “Pengenaan Hukum Pajak Pada Cryptocurrency dan NFT Di Indonesia”, Owner Riset & Jurnal Akutansi, Vol.6, No. 2, April 2022

Sarah Ari Mukti, “NFTs for Art and Collectables: Primer and Outlook”, SocArXiv Papers, May 2022, accessed 20 October 2022

Simatupang, Khwarizmi Maulana. "Tinjauan Yuridis Perlindungan Hak Cipta dalam Ranah Digital." Jurnal Ilmiah Kebijakan Hukum Vol. 15, No. 1, 2021

Teti Tiran, “Hak Cipta Karya Digital pada NFT Dikaitkan dengan Hak Akses yang Memiliki Nilai Ekonomi sebagai Hak Kebendaan Berdasarkan Peraturan Perundang-Undangan di Indonesia”, Jurnal Kewarganegaraa, Vol. 6, No. 3, October 2022

Tracey Dowdeswell, “NFTs and The Enclosure of The Digital Realm”, Information & Communications Technology Law, August 2022

Yenny Liegestu & David Tan, “Perlindungan Hak Cipta Terhadap Aset Digital NFT (Non-Fungible Token)”, Maleo Law Journal, Vol. 6, No.2, October 2022

Angger Budiadji, 2012, "Implementasi Hak Mengumumkan Musik Atau Lagu Pada Radio Siaran Swasta Nasional Di Kota Surakarta Berdasarkan Undang-Undang Nomor 19 Tahun 2002 Tentang Hak Cipta, Faculty of Law, Universitas Negeri Sebelas Maret, Surakarta

Clifford Chance, “Non-Fungible Token: Global Impact”, Clifford Chance Publication, June 2021

Knowledge Transfer Ireland, ‘KTI Practical Guide, License Agreements’ (KTI, 2021)

Nick Szabo, “An Introduction to Smart Contracts and Their Potential and Inherent Limitations” Skadden, 2021

Argoodlw, “The Six Rights of Copyright – Part V: The Right to Public Display”,, accessed 13 October 2022

Cameron Thompson, “NFTs and Intellectual Property: What Do You Actually Own?’,, accessed 10 October 2022

Cathrine Zhu, “A Checklist Of Legal Considerations For The NFT Marketplace”, accessed 25 October 2022

Mike Winters, “An NFT of Twitter co-founder Jack Dorsey’s first tweet has lost almost all of its $2.9 million value”,, accessed 10 October 2022

Common Creative, “1.1 The Story of Creative Commons (Creative Commons)” accessed 25 October 2022

Daniel Anthony, ‘Commercializing NFTs – generating value from digital assets and intellectual property rights , accessed 17 October 2022

Dapper Labs, “NFT License 2.0: Why an NFT can do what no other creative IP can do’, accessed 19 October 2022

Duncan Geere, “The History of Creative Commons”,, accessed on 26 October 2022

Elizabeth & Andrew, “NFT Licensing: Three Mistakes To Avoid”,, accessed 25 October 2022

Eric James Beyer, “NFTs: Understanding Ownership”,, accessed 26 October 2022

Ghaith Mahmood, “NFTs: What Are You Buying and What Do You Actually Own?”, , accessed 22 October 2022

Intellectual Property Office of Ireland, “General Information Concerning Copyright and Related Rights”,, accessed 10 January 2023

James Gatto, “NFT License Breakdown: Exploring Different Marketplaces and Associated License Issues”,, accessed 23 October 2022

James Grimmelman, “Copyright Vulnerabilities in NFTs”,, accessed 18 October 2022

Jolene Creighton, “NFTs Explained: A Must-Read Guide to Everything Non-Fungible”,, accessed 20 January 2022

Lucas Minnick, “Cryptopunks, Cryptokitties, And Crypto Copy-Cats” , accessed 15 October 2022

Marchel Thee, “Indonesian Artist Turns Psychedelia Revival Into Business Empire”, , accessed on 16 January 2023

Marianna Ryan, “Creative Commons and NFTs – is CC licensing compatible with the new technologies?’,, accessed 26 October 2022

Melanie J, ‘Brands and NFTs: Licensing and Contracting Considerations’,, accessed on 10 October 2022

Mike Antolin, “The NFT marketplace allows you to buy and sell original NBA digital content”,, accessed 16 January 2022

Rory, “NFTs and Intellectual Property Law”,, accessed 05 January 2023

RTFKT, “Digital Collectible Terms”,, accessed 26 October 2022

Sanction Scanner, “What is a Non-Fungible Token (NFT)?”,, accessed 9 February 2022

Turner Right, “Hackers stole at least $600M in Poly exploit across three chains”, accessed 24 October 2022

Wageningen University & Research, “What are Creative Commons licenses?”, Wageningen University & Research newspaper,, accessed 23 October 2022

Act on Copyright and Related Rights (Urheberrechtsgesetz – UrhG), Germany

Copyright And Related Rights Act of Ireland Number 28 of 2000

Law Number 28 of 2014 regarding Copyright Law (“Indonesian Copyright Act No. 28 of 2014”)



How to Cite

Muhammad Gultom, A., & Astari Asril, F. (2023). Key Issues of Non-Fungible Token (NFT): How Transfer of Copyright Should Adapt?. Perspektif Hukum, 23(1), 1–29.